and New Jersey Pennsylvania
A pictorial and taxonomic database
by Michael Hassler (
- Suggestions and corrections; picture license requests
- I want to contribute missing pictures to this database
While working for two years (mid 2004 to mid 2006) in
The picture size for the database (900 x 1150 pixels maximum) was chosen fairly high, in order to maximize the use of the pictures for identification. Most pictures are between 100 and 300 kbyte in size. We hope that this is acceptable to most internet users with broadband access.
In 2012 a major upgrade was done. Now our website uses a complete checklist and synonymy as provided by the USDA PLANTS database, and the distribution records of BONAP. The New Jersey data have been included, boosting the total from 2800 to 3580 species, and the pictured total from 2100 to 2710 species.
The species have
been listed in the database together with some basic information (synonymy,
general distribution in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, county records of central Pennsylvania,
red list data, habitats, flowering time, etc.), even if no picture is available
yet. We hope that other photographers will contribute and donate pictures, in
order to create a most complete reference picture collection for the
There are undoubtedly quite a few initial errors in this database, therefore we would welcome suggestions and corrections.
Michael Hassler, February 2013
While photographing for this collection, I had the help of numerous experts for the PA and NJ flora, who gave me detailed tips how to find plants and joined me for excursions.
Special thanks go to Harry Henderson (
Much help came also from:
Norm Deno (
Frank Fee (
William “Rocky” Gleason (
Bob Gruver (
Steve Johnson (Sunbury)
Roger Latham (
Daniel Laughlin (
Clark Shiffer (
Prof. Kim Steiner, Kathleen Reeder and Tim Phelps (Arboretum of Penn State University)
For picture contributions we are grateful to:
Aaron Carlson (Menomonie, WI) (
Alan Cressler ( )
Alexander Mrkvicka (Wien)
Allen Crawford ( )
Andreas Kleinsteuber (Karlsruhe)
Bernd Haisch (†) (Stutensee)
Brad Wilson (Atlanta, GA) ( )
Carl Luer (Sarasota, FL)
Carol Lund (Clemson)
Corey Raimond (Wisconsin) ( )
Dan Mullen (Wisconsin) ( )
Dieter Hassler (Kraichtal)
Eric Hunt (Little Rock) ( )
Ernst Horak (Wien)
Eugene Zielinski (Augusta)
Exner (Botanik im Bild, Wien)
Gerd-Uwe Kresken (Schleswig-Holstein)
Günther Blaich (Mannheim)
Hans Schön (Botanik im Bild, Wien)
Harry Henderson (State College, PA)
Harry Rose (Australia) ( )
J. C. Schou (www.biopix.dk)
Jeffrey Pippen ( )
Jenny Dressler (Costa Rica)
Joachim Rheinheimer (Ludwigshafen)
Joaquín Ramírez López ( )
John Hagstrom (OH) ( )
Julia Kruse (Bayreuth)
Jürgen Alberti (Bad Schönborn)
Karlheinz Knoch (Bruchsal-Büchenau)
Keir Morse (California) ( )
Kerry Wixted (Annapolis, MD) ( )
Layla Dishman (Texas) ( )
Martin Sommerfeld (Karlsruhe)
Matt Lavin (Montana State University) ( )
Melanie Schori (Athens, OH) ( )
Mike Turner ( )
Peter Woods (Erie, PA) ( ) (Images courtesy of Western Pennsylvania Conservancy)
Sonnia Hill (Texas) ( )
Steve Johnson (PA)
Svein Erik Larsen (Spain) ( )
Thomas Meyer (Günzburg)
Tyler W. Smith (Ottawa) ( )
Ulrich Lorimer (New York) ( )
Volker Kummer (Leipzig)
and others (see credits under the various pictures).
Even after 300 years of research, the taxonomy of the
We have used a latin taxonomy which is derived from the checklists used in the USDA PLANTS database, the BONAP lists and the Flora of North America. In some cases the newest available taxonomy was included.
We have therefore listed the synonyms quite detailed and made them searchable, in order to simplify the process of finding a plant.
English trivial names are notoriously fluctuating and unreliable – in some cases every field guide has different ones. We have mostly used the names used in the USDA PLANTS database.
Most of the pictures have been taken between 2004 and 2012, using a Sony DSC F828 digital camera, which has a marvelous macro function and lens never really surpassed by newer camera models.
Some older pictures, especially of European aliens and neophytes, have
been taken in
A minor percentage, mostly macro photos with high magnification, were taken with Canon D10 and D20 cameras, using a 100 mm Canon macro lens. The author uses this equipment mostly for insect and other animal photography, whereever short focus times are critical.
The pictures were deliberately taken in a relatively dark mode, which avoids overexposure to white and yellow colors (still a major problem in digital photography) and gives more natural colors. Still, the differences between various cameras and flash/non-flash modes are huge.
Rhoads, A. F. & Klein, W. M. (1993):
Vascular Flora of
Rhoads, A. F. & Block, T. A. (2000):
The Plants of
Rhoads, A. F. & Block, T. A. (2004):
The most recommended field guides:
Newcomb, L. (1989): Newcombs Wildflower Guide. 13th ed., 490 p.
Clemants, S. & Gracie, C. (2006): Wildflowers in
the Field and Forest: A Field Guide to the
Petrides, G. A. (1998): A Field Guide to Eastern Trees. (Peterson Field Guides). 2nd ed., 441 p.